Published material on the German theater is both extensive and, as Prof. Simon Williams, one of the great historians of the German theater, once noted, it is "dauntingly vast." No bibliography as part of a volume such as this could even approximate sufficiency; there is, however, an altogether copious and valuable stand-alone bibliography on the German theater, published by another outstanding German theater historian, Prof. Michael Patterson. Both Williams and Patterson are represented here, and readers desirous of further inquiries should without hesitation consult Patterson's German Theatre: A Bibliography from the Beginning to 1995.
   In the meantime, there are other outstanding works available in English for anyone wishing to embark on a short course of introduction to the German theater. Among the most notable have been Marvin Carlson's
   The German Stage of the 19th Century and his Goethe and the Weimar Theatre. To these, one should add the following: Walter Bruford's Theatre, Drama, and Audience in Goethe s Germany; Betsy Aikin-Sneath's Comedy in Germany in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century; Patterson's The Revolution in German Theatre, 1900-1933 and The First German Theatre; Williams's German Actors of the 18th and 19th Centuries, along with his Shakespeare on the German Stage, vol. 1; Ann Marie Koller's The Theater Duke: Georg II of Saxe-Meiningen; J. L. Styan's Max Reinhardt; all of the books by John Willett; Glenn Cuomo's edition National Socialist Cultural Policy; and Glen Gadberry's edition Theatre in the Third Reich. Hugh Garten's Modern German Drama was for many years a standard text for students interested in individual German playwrights. It is still a good and valuable book, but it has become by now somewhat outdated.
   Students interested in German theater developments since the end of World War II have a bit more from which to choose—at least numerically—and among these Martin Esslin's Brecht: A Choice of Evils ranks among the most readable and informative. John Fuegi's Brecht and Company and Patterson's German Theatre Today are extremely helpful, as are such editions as Henning Rischbieter's German Theatre Today, Leroy Shaw's German Theatre Today, and Schulze-Reimpell's booklet Development and Structure of the Theatre in the Federal Republic of Germany.
   Among the most comprehensive from the following list of general studies works are Mantzius's A History of Theatrical Art (in six volumes) and Kindermann's Theatergeschichte Europas (in 10 volumes). Both of these are standard works for theater history, yet both need updating. Rolf Kabel and Christoph Trilse revised Devrient's Geschichte der deutschen Schauspielkunst, and a welcome, up-to-date addition to the literature of German theater history is Peter von Becker's Das Jahrhundert des Theaters, based on a popular German television series. Erika Fischer-Lichte's Kurze Geschichte des deutschen Theaters is likewise more current, though it (like Knudsen's Deutsche Theatergeschichte) is not as comprehensive as one would like. The best of many lexicons on the German theater set forth below is the Deutsches Theater-Lexikon begun by Wilhelm Kosch and his staff, initially published in 1953 in two volumes, with alphabetical entries through "Max Pallenberg." Ingrid Bigler-Marshall has continued the work, beginning with volume 3 in 1992 and publishing the most recent entries in December 2004, concluding with "Hans Weisbach." Subsequent and far more compact efforts by Brauneck, Gröning, Sucher, and Trilse join the translation of Friedrichs Theateriexikon, titled The Encyclopedia of World Theatre, as important additions to theater reference works that pay substantial attention to the German theater. Eisenberg's lexicon of the 19th century is essentially a biographical dictionary—and an idiosyncratic one at that. Henry and Mary Garland's Oxford Companion to German Literature provides a wealth of information on German drama, but little on the German theater, the history of performances, or theater artists. Because Goethe looms so large on the landscape of the German theater, Sharpe's The Cambridge Companion to Goethe is included in the following bibliographical section.
   ■ ■ Becker, Peter von. Das Jahrhundert des Theaters. Düsseldorf: Dumont, 2002. Brauneck, Manfred, and Gérard Schneilin. Theaterlexikon: Begriffe und Epochen, Bühnen und Ensembles. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1992. Devrient, Eduard. Geschichte der deutschen Schauspielkunst. Leipzig: Weber, 1848-1874. Edited and annotated by Rolf Kabel and Christoph Trilse. Berlin: Henschel, 1967.
   ■ Drews, Wolfgang. Die Grossen des deutschen Schauspiels. Berlin: Deutscher, 1941.
   ■ . Theater: Schauspieler, Regisseure, Intendanten. . . . Vienna: Desch, 1961.
   ■ Eisenberg, Ludwig. Ludwig Eisenbergs grosses biographisches Lexikon der deutschen Bühne im XIX. Jahrhundert. Leipzig: List, 1903. Fiedler, Carl. Das deutsche Theater: Was es war, was es ist, und was es werden muss. Leipzig: Hartknoch, 1877. Fischer-Lichte, Erika, ed. Berliner Theater im 20. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Fannei und Walz, 1998.
   ■ . Kurze Geschichte des deutschen Theaters. Tübingen: Francke, 1993.
   ■ Frenzel, Herbert. Geschichte des Theaters: Daten und Dokumente, 1470-1840. Munich: Kiepenheuer und Witsch, 1979.
   ■ Freydank, Ruth. Theater in Berlin. East Berlin: Argon, 1988.
   ■ Garland, Henry, and Mary Garland. Oxford Companion to German Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
   ■ Gregor, Joseph. Geschichte des österreichischen Theaters von seinen Ursprüngen bis zum Ende der ersten Republik. Vienna: Donau-Verlag, 1948.
   ■ Gröning, Karl, et al. Friedrichs Theaterlexikon. Velber bei Hannover: Friedrich, 1969.
   ■ Hadamowsky, Franz. Wien: Theatergeschichte. Vienna: Jugend und Volk, 1988.
   ■ Haxthausen, Charles, ed. Berlin: Culture and Metropolis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990.
   ■ Hayman, Ronald, ed. The German Theatre: A Symposium. London: Wolff, 1975.
   ■ Herzfeld-Sander, Margaret, ed. Essays on German Theater. New York: Continuum, 1992.
   ■ Hinck, Walter. Die deutsche Komödie: Vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart. Düsseldorf: Bagel, 1977.
   ■ , ed. Handbuch des deutschen Dramas. Düsseldorf: Bagel, 1980.
   ■ Keil-Budischowsky, Verena. Die Theater Wiens. Vienna: Zsolnay, 1983.
   ■ Kindermann, Heinz. Theatergeschichte Europas. 10 vols. Salzburg: Müller, 19571971.
   ■ Knudsen, Hans. Deutsche Theatergeschichte. Stuttgart: Kröner, 1970.
   ■ Kosch, Wilhelm. Das deutsche Theater und Drama seit Schillers Tod. Leipzig: Vier Quellen, 1924.
   ■ Kosch, Wilhelm, and Ingrid Bigler-Marshall. Deutsches Theater-Lexikon. Klagenfurt: Kleinmayr, 1953-2004.
   ■ Mann, Otto. Geschichte des deutschen Dramas. Stuttgart: Kroner, 1963.
   ■ Mantzius, Karl. A History of Theatrical Art. New York: Peter Smith, 1937.
   ■ Michael, Friedrich, and Hans Daiber. Geschichte des deutschen Theaters. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1990.
   ■ Möhrmann, Renate, ed. Die Schauspielerin. Frankfurt/Main: Insel, 1989.
   ■ Patterson, Michael. German Theatre: A Bibliography from the Beginning to 1995. New York: G. K. Hall, 1996.
   ■ Prölss, Robert. Geschichte der dramatischen Literatur und Kunst in Deutschland. Leipzig: Schlicke, 1883.
   ■ Prutz, Robert. Vorlesungen über die Geschichte des deutschen Theaters. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1847.
   ■ Robertson, Ritchie, and Edward Timms, eds. Theatre and Performance in Austria: Mozart to Jelinek. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1993.
   ■ Rosenthal, Friedrich. Unsterblichkeit des Theaters: Kulturgeschichte der deutschen Bühne. Bonn: Klopp, 1927.
   ■ Schmid, Christian. Chronologie des deutschen Theaters. Berlin: Gesellschaft für Theatergeschichte, 1902.
   ■ Sharpe, Lesley. The Cambridge Companion to Goethe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
   ■ Simhandl, Peter. Theatergeschichte in einem Band. Berlin: Henschel, 1996.
   ■ Sucher, C. Bernd, et al. Theaterlexikon 1: Autoren, Regisseure, Schauspieler, Dramaturgen, Bühnenbildner, Kritiker. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1999.
   ■ . Theaterlexikon 2: Epochen, Ensembles, Figuren, Spielformen, Begriffe, Theorien. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1996.
   ■ Trilse, Christoph, et al. Theaterlexikon. Berlin: Henschelverlag, 1977. Weddigen, Otto. Geschichte der Theater Deutschlands. 2 vols. Berlin: Frens-dorff, 1883.
   ■ Wiese, Benno von, ed. Das deutsche Drama. 2 vols. Düsseldorf: Bagel, 1958.
   ■ Williams, Simon. Shakespeare on the German Stage, vol. 1. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
   ■ Winds, Adolf. Geschichte der Regie. Berlin: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1925.
   ■ Yates, W. E. Theater in Vienna: A Critical History, 1776-1996. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
   ■ Among the most comprehensive studies of the German theater that covers the first part of this period is Brandt and Hogendoorn's German and Dutch Theatre, 1600-1848. It provides an overview of German and some Dutch theater history based on imperial edicts, municipal contracts with touring troupes, architectural descriptions, playbills, stage directions, and actors' correspondence. Catholy's examination of comedy from the Middle Ages through the baroque period is likewise valuable, though perhaps not so comprehensive. The numerous Flemming editions are commendable for the wide variety of the essays contained in them covering the baroque, while Kindermann's Das Theaterpublikum des Mittelalters contains intriguing examinations of medieval reception among the Germans. As such, it follows in the precedent of Walter French's rather slim volume Mediaeval Civilization as Illustrated by the Fastnachtspiele of Hans Sachs. Readers interested in the numerous Eastertide productions, as well as the long tradition of the less frequently staged passion plays in the German-speaking world, should consult Pe-tersen's Ritual und Theater. For a discussion of staging techniques, stage structures, settings, and scenery in use during the period, Michael's Frühformen der deutschen Bühne is an excellent starting point. Among the several studies of Hans Sachs and the entire Nuremberg tradition, no single volume stands out. Aylett's edition contains several essays, including one by John West about performances during Shrovetide. Catholy's volumes on the Shrovetide performances, titled Das Fastnachtspiel des Spätmittelalters and simply Fastnachtspiel, are thorough examinations of the plays; DuBruck's more recent monograph includes some analysis of audience expectations. Lenk's monograph examines the same phenomenon, but from the standpoint of a century earlier. Petra Herrmann's study goes back even further, inquiring into the obscene "Sir Neidhart" tradition, which remained a part of the Shrovetide festivities well into the late 16th century.
   ■ Adel, Kurt. Das Jesuitendrama in Österreich. Vienna: Bergland, 1957.
   ■ Amstutz, Renate. Ludus de decem virginibus: Recovery of the Sung Liturgical Core of the Thuringian Zehnjungfrauenspiel. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2002.
   ■ Aust, Hugo. Volksstück: Vom Hanswurstspiel zum sozialen Drama der Gegenwart. Munich: Beck, 1989.
   ■ Aylett, Robert, ed. Hans Sachs and Folk Theatre in the Late Middle Ages. Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 1995.
   ■ Baeseke, Anna. Das Schauspiele der englischen Komödianten in Deutschland. Studien zur englischen Philologie 87. Halle: Niemeyer, 1935.
   ■ Bolte, Johannes. Die Singspiele der englischen Komödianten und ihrer Nachfolger. Theatergeschichtliche Forschungen 7. Hamburg: Voss, 1893.
   ■ Brandt, George W., and Wiebe Hogendoorn. German and Dutch Theatre, 1600-1848. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
   ■ Brennecke, Ernst, ed. Shakespeare in Germany, 1590-1900. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.
   ■ Brüning, Ida. Le théâtre en Allemagne: Son origine et ses luttes. Paris: Plon, 1887.
   ■ Catholy, Eckehard. Das deutsche Lustspiel. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1969.
   ■ . Das Fastnachtspiel des Spätmittelalters. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1961.
   ■ . Fastnachtspiel. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1966.
   ■ Cohn, Albert, ed. Shakespeare in Germany in the 16th and 17th Centuries. London: Asher, 1865.
   ■ Creizenach, Wilhelm, ed. Die Schauspiele der englischen Komödianten. Berlin: Speemann, 1888.
   ■ Diesch, Carl. Inszenierung des deutschen Dramas an der Wende des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts. Leipzig: Voigtländer, 1905.
   ■ Dietrich, Margaret. "Der Wandel der Gebärde auf dem deutschen Theater vom 15. zum 17. Jahrhundert." Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1944.
   ■ DuBruck, Edelgard E. Aspects of 15th-Century Society in the German Carnival Comedies. Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 1993.
   ■ Ehrstine, Glenn. Theater, Culture, and Community in Reformation Bern, 15231555. Boston: Brill, 2002.
   ■ Fischer-Lichte, Erika. Vom "kunstlichen"zum "natürlichen"Zeichen: Theater des Barock und der Aufklärung. Tübingen: Narr, 1983.
   ■ Flemming, Willi, ed. Andreas Gryphius und die Bühne. Halle: Niemeyer, 1921.
   ■ , ed. Das Schauspiel der Wanderbühne. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1931.
   ■ , ed. Deutsche Kultur im Zeitalter des Barocks. Constance: Athenaion, 1960.
   ■ , ed. Die deutsche barockkomödie. Leipzig: Reclam, 1931.
   ■ French, Walter. Mediaeval Civilization as Illustrated by the Fastnachtspiele of Hans .Sachs. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1925. Frenzel, Herbert. Brandenburg-preussische Schlosstheater. Berlin: Gesellschaft für Theatergeschichte, 1959. Geiger, Eugen. Hans Sachs als Dichter in seinen Fastnachstspielen. Halle: Niemeyer, 1904. Genée, Rudolf. Hans Sachs und seine Zeit. Leipzig: Weber, 1894. Hartleb, Hans. Deutschlands erster Theaterbau. Leipzig: De Gruyter, 1936. Heine, Carl. Das Schauspiel der deutschen Wanderbühne vor Gottsched. Halle: Niemeyer, 1889.
   ■ . Johannes Velten. Halle: Karras, 1887.
   ■ Herrmann, Max. Forschungen zur deutschen Theatergeschichte des Mittelalters und der Renaissance. Berlin: Weidmann, 1914.
   ■ Herrmann, Petra. Karnevaleske Strukturen in der Neidhart-Tradition. Göttingen: Kümmerle, 1984.
   ■ Hinck, Walter. Das deutsche Lustspiel des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts und die italienische Komödie. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1965.
   ■ Holdschmidt, Hans C. Der Jude auf dem Theater des deutschen Mittelalters. Emsdetten: Lechte, 1935.
   ■ Kindermann, Heinz. Das Theaterpublikum des Mittelalters. Salzburg: Müller, 1980.
   ■ Könneker, Barbara. Hans Sachs. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1971. Köster, Albert. Die Meistersingerbühne des sechszehnten Jahrhunderts. Halle: Niemeyer, 1920.
   ■ Krause, Helmut. Die Dramen des Hans Sachs. Berlin: Hofgarten-Verlag, 1979. Kurtz, John. "Studies in the Staging of German Religious Drama of the Late Middle Ages." Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1932. Lenk, Werner. Das Nürnberger Fastnachtspiel des l5. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Akademie, 1966.
   ■ Limon. Jerzy. Gentleman of a Company: English Players in Central and Eastern Europe, 1590-1660. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
   ■ Michael, Wolfgang. Frühformen der deutschen Bühne. Berlin: Gesellschaft für Theatergeschichte, 1963.
   ■ Moser, Fritz. Die Anfänge des Hof- und Gesellschaftstheater in Deutschland. Berlin: Elsner, 1940.
   ■ Niedermeier, Cornelia. Gedanken-Kleider: Die Allegorisierung des Körpers in Gesellschaft und Theater des 17. Jahrhunderts. Vienna: Braumüller, 2000.
   ■ Nowé, Johan. Et respondeat: Studien zum deutschen Theater des Mittelalters. Louvain, Belgium: Louvain University Press, 2002.
   ■ Pascal, Roy, ed. Shakespeare in Germany, 1740-1815. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1937.
   ■ Paul, Markus. Reichsstadt und Schauspiel: Theatrale Kunst im Nürnberg des 17. Jahrhunderts. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2002.
   ■ Petersen, Christoph. Ritual und Theater: Messallegorese, Osterfeier und Osterspiel im Mittelalter. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2004.
   ■ Schindler, Otto G. Stegreifburlesken der Wanderbühne: Szenare der Schulz-Menningerschen Schauspielertruppe. St. Ingbert: Werner J. Röhrig, 1990.
   ■ Stammler, Wolfgang. Deutsche Classiker des Mittelalters. Wiesbaden: N.p., 1954.
   ■ Stumpfl, Robert. Kultspiele der Germanen. Berlin: Junker und Dünnhaupt, 1936.
   ■ Thomke, Hellmut, ed. Deutsche Spiele und Dramen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts. Frankfurt/Main: Deutscher Klassiker, 1996.
   ■ Tittmann, Julius, ed. Schauspiele aus dem sechzehnten Jahrhundert. Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1868.
   ■ Tydeman, William. The Medieval European Stage, 500-1550. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Valentin, Jean Marie. Les Jésuites et le théâtre dans le Saint-Empire romain germanique. Paris: Desjonquères, 2001. Wailes, Stephen L. The Rich Man and Lazarus on the Reformation Stage.
   ■ Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press, 1997. Wodick, Wilibald. Jakob Ayrers Dramen in ihrem Verhältnis zur einheimischen Literatur und zum Schauspiel der englischen Komödianten. Halle: Niemeyer, 1912.
   Because 18th-century events were so unforeseeably decisive in shaping what became the German theater, the wealth of scholarly studies during this century is usually divided into three distinct periods. The first of them is the "reform" period, during which touring troupes struggled to establish themselves and their profession in the wake of the previous century's military and political upheavals. Among the most informative studies of this period is Aikin-Sneath's Comedy in Germany in the First Half of the 18th Century. It provides a superb background on the German critical disdain for popular comedy, a disdain with historical roots in German national development. After all, notes Aikin-Sneath, Gottsched wanted a national drama for a nation that did not yet exist. Popular comedy in the first half of the 18th century was "vulgar, unruly, amoral, and impudent," and it was Gottsched's ambition to impose his taste on audiences and to establish a theater that "satisfied his moral and intellectual demands." That is an exaggeration, but Aikin-Sneath's research is first rate and makes a good case for the argument that deep divisions within 18th-century Germany denied the Germans "any cultural center." Popular theater until Lessing was "devoid of urbanity or universality." It was all "local, whether the scene is Hamburg, Leipzig, or some other town or village." The second period begins with Lessing and his work among the successors of the Neuber tradition. Eichhorn's Konrad Ernst Ackermann is a superb chronicle of that collaboration; of course, the near-masterpiece of the actor's work in the 18th century is Williams's German Actors of the 18th and 19th Centuries, but it includes performers from the next century as well. Several other books on actors are available, and among them Bender's Schauspielkunst im 18. Jahrhundert is likewise exemplary. Of the volumes on Neuber herself, Oelker's "Nichts als eine Komödiantin": Die Lebensgeschichte der Friederike Caroline Neuber stands out. This period is also fundamental to the rise of Shakespeare as a German playwright, as Simon Williams states in his Shakespeare on the German Stage I, 1586-1914. Shakespeare had led Lessing to a view of theater that altered the course of German theater history, because Lessing was convinced that Shakespeare's understanding of human nature was so comprehensive that one felt compassion even for his blackest villains. "In this way he appeared to Lessing as a typical figure of the Enlightenment." Yet as Pascal points out in his The German Sturm und Drang, Shakespeare seemed to have created plays "from a limitless imagination," with the result that the young Goethe and his followers found Shakespeare nearly irresistible. Shakespeare became the fundament upon which the playwrights of Sturm und Drang established their identity. For Goethe and his admirers in that movement, freedom of expression and action were overriding priorities. The idea of Shakespeare as a genius likewise made him the observed of all observers among the German Romantics — as Stahl notes in his Shakespeare und das deutsche Theater. The third, and perhaps most important, phase of the German theater's development begins with the rise of Goethe and Schiller, which in turn became the "Weimar Classical" period. Though it blossomed chronologically as a 19th-century development, Weimar Classicism appears here within 18th-century studies. Goethe and Schiller themselves represent an entire epoch in the German theater, and the number of excellent books on them and their work are legion. Among the best in English are Bruford's Theatre, Drama, and Audience in Goethe's Germany and Carlson's Goethe and the Weimar Theatre. Kindermann's Theatergeschichte der Goethezeit is likewise requisite, and Patterson's The First German Theatre is an outstanding treatment of Goethe and Schiller stagings, though the author also included in the volume discussions of stagings of plays by Kleist and Büchner.
   ■ Aikin-Sneath, Betsy. Comedy in Germany in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon, 1936. Alth, Minna von. Frauen am Theater: Freche Buhlerinnen?Basel: Herder, 1979. Arntzen, Helmut. Die ernste Komödie. Munich: Nymphenburger, 1968. Ballhausen, Günter. "Der Wandel der Gebärde auf dem deutschen Theater im 18. Jahrhundert." Ph.D. diss., University of Göttingen, 1955. Bender, Wolfgang F. Schauspielkunst im 18. Jahrhundert. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1992.
   ■ Bender, Wolfgang F., Siegfried Bushuven, Michael Huesmann, et al. Theaterperiodika des 18. Jahrhunderts. Munich: Saur, 1994. Brahm, Otto. Schiller. Berlin: Hertz, 1888.
   ■ Bruford, Walter. Theatre, Drama, and Audience in Goethes Germany. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1950.
   ■ Carlson, Marvin. Goethe and the Weimar Theatre. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1978.
   ■ Cocalis, Susan L., and Ferrel V. Rose, eds. Thalia's Daughters: German Women Dramatists from the Eighteenth Century to the Present. Tübingen: Francke, 1996.
   ■ Conrad, Hans-Werner. Einsiedels Theorie der Schauspielkunst ... im 18. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Ernst-Reuter-Gesellschaft, 1969.
   ■ Devrient, Hans. Johann Friedrich Schönemann und seine Schauspielergesellschaft. Leipzig: Voss, 1895.
   ■ Eichhorn, Herbert. Konrad Ernst Ackermann. Emsdetten: Lechte, 1965.
   ■ Fetting, Hugo, ed. Konrad Ekhof, ein Schauspieler des 18. Jahrhunderts. Berlin: Henschel, 1954.
   ■ Fleig, Anne. Handlungs-Spiel-Räume: Dramen von Autorinnen im Theater des ausgehenden 18. Jahrhunderts. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 1999.
   ■ Flemming, Willi. Das Schauspiel der Wanderbühne. Leipzig: Reclam, 1931.
   ■ . Goethe und das Theater seiner Zeit. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1968.
   ■ Goethe, Johann Wolfgang. The Dramatic Works of J. W. Goethe. Edited by Walter Scott, et al. New York: Bell, 1915.
   ■ Gottsched, Johann Christoph. Versuch einer kritischen Dichtkunst. 5 vols. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1962.
   ■ Grimm, Reinhold, and Klaus Berghahn, eds. Schiller: Zur Theorie und Praxis der Dramen. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1972.
   ■ Gross, Edgar. Johann Friedrich Ferdinand Fleck. Berlin: Gesellschaft für Theatergeschichte, 1914.
   ■ Hadamowsky, Franz. Das Theater in der Wiener Leopoldstadt, 1781-1860. Vienna: Höfel, 1934.
   ■ Haider-Pregler, Hilde. Des sittlichen Bürgers Abendschule. Vienna: Jugend und Volk, 1980.
   ■ Heitner, R. R. German Tragedy in the Age of the Enlightenment, 1724-1768. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963. Hoffmeier, Dieter. Die Einbürgerung Shakespeares auf dem Theater des Sturm und Drangs. Berlin: Henschel, 1976. Hoffmeister, Gerhart. A Reassessment of Weimar Classicism. Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 1996.
   ■ Höyng, Peter. Die Sterne, die Zensur und das Vaterland: Geschichte und Theater im späten 18. Jahrhundert. Cologne: Böhlau, 2003.
   ■ Jenkner, Hans. August Klingemanns Anschauung über die Funktionen des Theaters. Clausthal-Zellerfeld: Pieper, 1929.
   ■ Kahl-Pantis, Brigitte. Bauformen des bürgerlichen Trauerspiels. Frankfurt/Main: Lang, 1977.
   ■ Kindermann, Heinz. Konrad Ekhofs Schauspieler-Akademie. Vienna: Rohrer, 1956.
   ■ . Theatergeschichte der Goethezeit. Vienna: Bauer, 1948.
   ■ Klingenberg, Karl-Heinz. Iffland und Kotzebue als Dramatiker. Weimar: Arion Verlag, 1962.
   ■ Kosenina, Alexander. Anthropologie und Schauspielkunst. . . im 18. Jahrhundert. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1995.
   ■ Krause, Markus. Das Tirvialdrama der Goethezeit, 1780-1805. Bonn: Bouvier, 1982.
   ■ Krebs, Roland, and Jean-Marie Valentin. Théâtre, nation et société en Allemagne au XVIIIe siècle. Nancy, France: University of Nancy Press, 1990.
   ■ Lamport, F. J. German Classical Drama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
   ■ Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim. Hamburg Dramaturgy. New York: Dover, 1962.
   ■ . Werke. Munich: Hanser, 1970-1979.
   ■ Liebscher, Otto. Franz von Dingelstedt. Halle: Paalzow, 1909. Linder, Jutta. Ästhetische Erziehung: Goethe und das Weimarer Hoftheater. Bonn: Bouvier, 1990.
   ■ Mandel, Oscar. August von Kotzebue: The Comedy, the Man. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990. Maurer, Doris. August von Kotzebue: Ursachen seines Erfolges. Bonn: Bouvier, 1979.
   ■ Maurer-Schmoock, Sybille. Deutsches Theater im 18. Jahrhundert. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1982.
   ■ Meyer, Wilhelm August Clemens. Ferdinand Esslair. Emmendingen: Dölter, 1927.
   ■ Müller-Kampel, Beatrice. Hanswurst, Bernardon, Kasperl: Spasstheater im 18. Jahrhundert. Paderborn: Schöningh, 2003.
   ■ Neeb-Crippen, Jerry Eugene. "Bürgerliches Lustspiel und Ritterroman: Zur Unterhaltungsliteratur im ausgehenden 18. Jahrhundert." Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1994.
   ■ Neuhuber, Christian. Das Lustspiel macht Ernst. Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 2003. Oberländer, Hans. Die geistige Entwicklung der deutschen Schauspielkunst im 18. Jahrhundert. Leipzig: Voss, 1898. Oelker, Petra. "Nichts als eine Komödiantin": Die Lebensgeschichte der Friederike Caroline Neuber. Weinheim: Beltz & Gelberg, 1993. Ohlen, Joachim. Ferdinand Esslair. Munich: Wölfle, 1972. Pascal, Roy. The German Sturm und Drang. New York: Philosophical Library, 1953.
   ■ Patterson, Michael. The First German Theatre. London: Routledge, 1990. Prudhoe, John. The Theatre of Goethe and Schiller. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1973.
   ■ Reden-Esbeck, Friedrich Johann. Caroline Neuber und ihre Zeitgenossen. Leipzig: Barth, 1881.
   ■ Sasse, Hannah. Friedericke Caroline Neuber. Endingen-Kaiserstuhl: Wild, 1937.
   ■ Schiller, Friedrich. Dramatic Works of Friedrich Schiller: "Wallenstein" and "Wilhelm Tell. "Edited by James Churchill, et al. London: Bell, 1901.
   ■ Stahl, Ernst Leopold. Shakespeare und das deutsche Theater. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1947.
   ■ Steiner, Gerhard. Das Theater der Deutschen Jakobiner: Dramatik und Bühne im Zeichen der französischen Revolution. Berlin: Henschelverlag, 1989.
   ■ Strohschänk, Johannes. William Dunlap und August von Kotzebue: Deutsches Drama in New York um 1800. Stuttgart: H.-D. Heinz, 1992.
   ■ Troitskii, Z. L. Konrad Ekhof, Ludwig Schröder, August Wilhelm Iffland, Johann Friedrich Fleck, Ludwig Devrient, Karl Seydelmann: Die Anfänge der realistischen .Schauspielkunst. Berlin: Henschel, 1949.
   ■ Ulrich, Paul Stanley. A Preliminary Bibliography of German-Language Theatre Almanacs, Yearbooks, Calendars and Journals of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Vienna: Böhlau, 1994.
   ■ Wahle, Julius. Das WeimarerHoftheaterunterGoethes Leitung. Weimar: Goethe Gesellschaft, 1892. Williams, Simon. German Actors of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1985.
   ■ Williams, Simon. Shakespeare on the German Stage I, 1586-1914. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Winds, Adolf. Der Schauspieler in seiner Entwicklung . . . . Berlin: Schuster und Loeffler, 1919.
   The German theater in the 19th century prospered to an unprecedented degree, though the Napoleonic conflicts that ushered in the new century occasioned severe disruption and helped to prolong German political disunity. That disunity, as Carlson notes in his The German Stage of the 19th Century, fostered a subsequently beneficial decentralized German theater practice. In a similarly paradoxical way, Fürstenthal in his Das Preussische Civil-Recht notes that stringent police censorship in the aftermath of the Congress of Vienna may have contributed to the liveliness of popular theater culture, especially in Vienna and Berlin. Rommel masterfully chronicles the Viennese variety of popular comedy in his Die Alt-Wiener Volkskomödie. Pargner has provided a similar service for popular theater culture in general with her Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer, examining the reasons Birch-Pfeiffer was for 30 years the most popular of all German-language playwrights—and also one of the German theater's most successful actresses and theater managers. Meanwhile, the development of serious playwriting continued, though on a less exalted level than it had when Schiller and Goethe were active, as Martersteig confirms in his magisterial Das deutsche Theaterim neunzehnten Jahrhundert. Martersteig does more, however, than simply survey dramatic literature, popular actors, and the socioeconomic conditions that produced them. He also provides a living portrait of the German theater over nearly the entire century. The 19th century was nevertheless best known for its virtuoso acting, and several books are essential to an understanding of the decades prior to unification. They include Kollek's biography of Dawison, and Alt-man's of Ludwig Devrient. The biggest star in the German theatrical firmament during the early decades of the 19th century was Iffland, and Kliewer's biography on him remains significant. Of course, Iffland wrote many books about himself, of which Meine theatralische Laufbahn remains the most important. A worthwhile examination of the German actor's social standing in those decades is Schmitt's Schauspieler und Theaterbetrieb, while other books on the business side of theater production include Maas's book on the Friedrich-Wilhelmstädtisches Theater in Berlin, one of the first entertainment emporia to establish a privately lucrative foothold in the city. Another such entertainment center was the Wallner Theater, though Erika Wischer's doctoral dissertation on that subject, titled "Das Wallner-Theater in Berlin," remains the only notable work concentrating on the subject.
   ■ Altman, Georg. Heinrich Laubes Prinzip der Theaterleitung. Dortmund: Ruh-fus, 1908.
   ■ . Ludwig Devrient: Leben und Werke eines Schauspielers. Berlin: Ullstein, 1926.
   ■ Anschütz, Heinrich. Erinnerungen aus Leben und Wirken. Vienna: Sommer, 1866.
   ■ Bauer, Roger. La réalité royaume de Dieu: Etudes sur l'originalité du théâtre viennois dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle. Munich: Hueber, 1965.
   ■ Böhmer, Günther. Die Welt des Biedermeier. Munich: Desch, 1968.
   ■ Brachvogel, Albert Emil. Das alte Berliner theater-wesen bis zur ersten Blüthe des deutschen Dramas. Berlin: Janke, 1877.
   ■ Carlson, Marvin. The German Stage of the 19th Century. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow, 1972.
   ■ Dietrich, Margaret. Die Wiener Polizeiakten 1854-1867 als Quelle für die Theatergeschichte. Vienna: Böhlau, 1967.
   ■ Fürstenthal, Johann August Ludwig. Das Preussische Civil-Recht. Vol. 1 Frankfurt/Main: Keip, 1970.
   ■ Glossy, Karl. Josef Schreyvogel. Vienna: Konegen, 1903.
   ■ Goldbaum, Wenzel. Theaterrecht. Berlin: Vahlen, 1914.
   ■ Grimm, Reinhold. Love, Lust, and Rebellion: New Approaches to Georg Büchner. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.
   ■ Grimm, Reinhold, and Klaus Berghahn. Wesen und Formen des Komischen im Drama. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1975.
   ■ Grisebach, August. Carl Friedrich Schinkel. Leipzig: Insel, 1924.
   ■ Hebbel, Friedrich. Hebbels Dramaturgie: Drama und Bühne betreffende Schriften. Edited by Wilhelm von Scholz. Munich: Müller, 1907.
   ■ Hein, Jürgen. Das Wiener Volkstheater: Raimund und Nestroy. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1978.
   ■ Helbig, Gerhard, ed. Das Wiener Volkstheater in seinen schönsten Stücken. Bremen: Schünemann, 1960.
   ■ Hilliker, Rebecca. "The Classical-Romantic Scene Designs of Karl Friedrich Schinkel." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin, 1984. Holtei, Karl von. Beiträge für das Königstädter Theater. Wiesbaden: N.p., 1832.
   ■ Horch, Franz. Das Burgtheater unter Heinrich Laube und Adolf Wilbrandt. Vienna: Österreichischer Bundesverlag, 1925.
   ■ Iffland, August Wilhelm. Meine theatralische Laufbahn. Edited by Oscar Fambach. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1976.
   ■ Kindermann, Heinz. Grillparzer und das Theater seiner Zeit. Vienna: Müller, 1966.
   ■ Klein, Wilhelm. Der preussische Staat und das Theater im Jahre: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Nationaltheateridee. Berlin: Selbstverlage der Gesellschaft für Theatergeschichte, 1848.
   ■ Kleist, Heinrich von. Five Plays. Edited by Martin Greenberg. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988.
   ■ Kliewer, Erwin. A. W. Iffland. Berlin: Ebering, 1937.
   ■ Klingemann, August. Kunst und Natur. 3 vols. Braunschweig: Meyer, 1823.
   ■ Kollek, Peter. Bogumil Dawison. Kastellaun: Henn, 1978.
   ■ Laube, Heinrich. Das Burgtheater: Ein Beitrag zur deutschen TheaterGeschichte. Leipzig: Weber, 1868.
   ■ . Das Wiener Stadt-Theater. Leipzig: Weber, 1875.
   ■ . Schriften über das Theater. Berlin: Henschel, 1959.
   ■ Lüdeke, Henry. Ludwig Tieck und das alte englische Theater. Hildesheim: Gerstenberg, 1975.
   ■ Maas, Lieselotte. Das Friedrich-Wilhelmstädtische Theater in Berlin. Munich: Schön, 1965.
   ■ Martersteig, Max. Das deutsche Theater im neunzehnten Jahrhundert. Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1924. May, Erich. Wiener Volkskomödie und Vormärz. Berlin: Henschel, 1975. Moschner, Alfred. Holtei als dramatiker. Breslau: Hirt, 1911. Müller, Eugen. Eine glanzzeit des Zürcher stadttheaters, 1837-1843. Zurich: Orell Füssli, 1911.
   ■ Orzechowski, Norman. Kleists Dramen in den Bühnendekorationen des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts. Aachen: Shaker, 1997. Osborn, Max. Der bunte Spiegel. New York: Krause, 1945. Paldamus, Friedrich Christian. Das deutsche Theater der Gegenwart. 2 vols. Mainz: Kunze, 1857. Pargner, Birgit. Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer. Bielefeld: Aistheisis, 1999. Pye, Gillian. Approaches to Comedy in German Drama. Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 2002.
   ■ Reeve, William C. Kleist on Stage, 1804-1987. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1993.
   ■ Richel, Veronica. The German Stage, 1797-1890: A Directory of Playwrights and Plays. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1988.
   ■ Ritter, Gerhard. Staatskunst und Kriegshandwerk. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1959.
   ■ Rommel, Otto. Die Alt-Wiener Volkskomödie. Vienna: Müller, 1952.
   ■ Schmitt, Peter. Schauspieler und Theaterbetrieb: Studien zur Sozialgeschichte des Schauspielerstandes im deutschsprachigen Raum, 1700-1900. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1990.
   ■ Schobloch, Fritz. Wiener Theater . . . 1806-1858. Vienna: Verband der wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaften Österreichs, 1974.
   ■ Schöndiest, Eugen, and Herbert Hohenemser. Geschichte des deutschen Bühnenvereins. Frankfurt/Main: Propyläen, 1979.
   ■ Schulze-Reimpell, Werner. "Die Königlichen Schauspiele zu Berlin unter dem Generalintendanten Karl Theodor von Küstner (1842-1851)." Ph.D. diss., Free University of Berlin, 1955.
   ■ Stiehler, Arthur. Das Ifflandische Rührstück. Leipzig: Voss, 1898.
   ■ Townsend, Mary. Humor als Hochverrat. Berlin: Hentrich, 1988.
   ■ Wahnrau, Gerhard. Berlin: Stadt der Theater. Berlin: Henschel, 1957.
   ■ Walther, Gerhard. Das Berliner Theater in der Berliner Tagespresse, 18481878. Berlin: Colloquium, 1968.
   ■ Wischer, Erika. "Das Wallner-Theater in Berlin." Ph.D. diss., Free University of Berlin, 1967.
   ■ Zeman, Herbert. Johann Nepomuk Nestroy. Vienna: Holzhausen, 2001.
   ■ The Wilhelmine period was important for reasons more complicated than simply the unification of the German Reich under three Hohenzollern kaisers (Wilhelm I, Friedrich III, and Wilhelm II). As Epstein notes in his Das Theater als Geschäft, the Wilhelmine period inaugurated an explosion of economic expansion that launched the German theater as a profitable business enterprise. Such a development was roundly condemned by several critics, Julius Bab, Otto Brahm, and Paul Schlenther most prominent among them. Bab's Das Theater der Gegenwart provides ample evidence of his alarm. Brahm's concern went beyond economics; it included a social perspective that ultimately ushered in new aesthetic standards. Brahm's entreaty for new standards of critical judgment remains readily available in the volume under his name titled Theater, Dramatiker, Schauspieler. Horst Claus's biography of Brahm, The Theater DirectorOtto Brahm, is a superior chronicle of the man's commitment both to a "free theater for modern life" and also to the work of Ibsen and Hauptmann.
   ■ For a comprehensive look at the later Wilhelmine theater from the perspective of numerous critics, the Jaron volume (coedited with Renate Möhrmann and Hedwig Müller) titled Bühnengeschichte der Reichshauptstadt im Spiegel der Kritik, 1889-1914 is indispensable. Similarly valuable, though for different reasons, is the Schöndienst and Hohenemser history of the German producers' association, titled Geschichte des deutschen Bühnenvereins. This book provides a stunning perspective on the so-called Gründerjahre (foundation years) of the Wilhelmine Reich, explaining why the Gewerbefreiheitgesetz (business freedom law) of 1869 led to the aforementioned expansion of business opportunities for theater managers in the 1870s and 1880s. In those decades, according to Schöndienst and Hohenemser, professional qualifications took a back seat to moral dependability (sittliche Zuverlässigkeit) in granting managers a theater license. Many men who became theater managers had little or no theater expertise, much less a knowledge of plays or the obligations of theater as a moral institution. Many of them, Schöndienst and Hohenemser observe, were considered "fishmongers, shoemakers, upholsterers, and locksmiths." Hence the condemnation and general hand-wringing by Brahm and others. Brahm's successor at the Deutsches Theater, Max Reinhardt, has been the subject of numerous outstanding books. J. L. Styan's belongs to that group, joining those of Kindermann, Carter, Fiedler, and Braulich. Among the numerous playwrights whom Reinhardt premiered and continued to promote were Sternheim and Wedekind; the most comprehensive work on Wedekind remains Seehaus's Frank Wedekind und das Theater, 1898-1959, though Alan Best's biography is noteworthy. Of the numerous Sternheim books, Dedner's biography is perhaps the most immediately accessible.
   ■ The Wilhelmine period was also important for the Meininger, as Koller's The Theater Duke bears witness. Outstanding actors who had been members of the Meiningen company, such as Bassermann and Kainz, receive thorough examination in books by Richter and Kober, respectively. Other actors whose work has been the impetus for recent biographical treatment include Moissi (by Schaper) and Sandrock (by Ahlermann, titled Ich bleibe die grosse Adele).
   ■ Wilhelmine actors and directors whose memoirs provide authoritative — and often colorful—sources of background on the period include Alexander's Meine Streichen beim Theater, Blumenthal's Allerhand Ungezogenheiten, Bonn's Mein Künstlerleben, and L'Arronge's Deutsches Theater und deutsche Schauspielkunst.
   ■ Ahlermann, Jutta. Ich bleibe die grosse Adele. Düsseldorf: Droste, 1988.
   ■ Alexander, Richard. Meine Streichen beim Theater. Berlin: Scherl, 1922.
   ■ Allen, Ann Taylor. Satire and Society in Wilhelmine Germany: "Kladderadatsch" and "Simplicissimus, " 1890-1914. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1984.
   ■ Bab, Julius. Albert Bassermann. Leipzig: E. Weibezahl, 1929.
   ■ . Das Theater der Gegenwart. Leipzig: Weber, 1918.
   ■ . Das Theater im Lichte der Soziologie. Leipzig: Hirschfeld, 1921.
   ■ . Kränze der Mimen. Emsdetten: Lechte, 1954.
   ■ . Schauspieler und Schauspielkunst. Berlin: Oesterheld, 1926.
   ■ Bahr, Hermann. Wiener Theater, 1892-1898. Berlin: Fischer, 1899.
   ■ Balme, Christopher, ed. Das Theater von Morgen. Würzburg: Königshausen und Neumann, 1988.
   ■ Barnay, Ludwig. Erinnerungen. Berlin: Fleische, 1903.
   ■ Berstl, Julius. 25 Jahre Berliner Theater und Viktor Barnowsky. Berlin: Kiepenheuer, 1930.
   ■ Best, Alan. Frank Wedekind. London: Wolff, 1975.
   ■ Blumenthal, Oskar. Allerhand ungezogenheiten. Berlin: Hugo Steinitz, 1898.
   ■ Bonn, Ferdinand. Mein Künstlerleben. Munich: Huber, 1920.
   ■ Borgfeldt, Georg. Genies der Bühne: Charakteristiken. Leipzig: Reclam, 1914.
   ■ Brahm, Otto. Theater, Dramatiker, Schauspieler. Berlin: Henschel, 1961.
   ■ Braulich, Heinrich. Max Reinhardt: Theater zwischen Traum und Wirklichkeit. Berlin: Henschel, 1969.
   ■ Brauneck, Manfred. Literatur und Öffenlichkeit im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1974.
   ■ Buth, Werner. "Das Lessingtheater in Berlin unter der Direktion von Otto Brahm." Ph.D. diss., University of Munich, 1965.
   ■ Carter, Huntley. The Theatre of Max Reinhardt. New York: Blom, 1964.
   ■ Claus, Horst. The Theater Director Otto Brahm. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1981.
   ■ Dedner, Burghard. Carl Sternheim. Boston: Twayne, 1982.
   ■ Doerry, Hans. Das Rollenfach im deutschen Theater im 19. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Selbstverlag für Theatergeschichte, 1926. Drews, Wolfgang. Die grossen Zauberer. Vienna: Donau, 1953. Eloesser, Arthur, ed. Aus der grossen Zeit des deutschen Theaters. Munich: E. Rentsch, 1911.
   ■ Epstein, Max. Das Theater als Geschäft. Berlin: Juncker, 1911.
   ■ . Theater und Volkswirtschaft. Berlin: Simion, 1914.
   ■ Eulenberg, Herbert. Der Gukkasten: Deutsche Schauspielbilder. Stuttgart: Engelhorn, 1921.
   ■ Fetting, Hugo, ed. Von der Freien Bühne zum Politischen Theater.. . im Spiegel der Kritik. Leipzig: Reclam, 1987.
   ■ Fiedler, Leonhard. Max Reinhardt. Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1975.
   ■ Flatz, Roswitha. Krieg im Frieden. Frankfurt/Main: Klostermann, 1976.
   ■ Fontana, Oskar. Wiener Schauspieler. Vienna: Amandus, 1948.
   ■ Gajaek, Bernhard, and Wolfgang von Ungern-Sternberg. Ludwig Fulda: Briefwechsel. 2 vols. Bern: Lang, 1988.
   ■ Garten, H. F. Modern German Drama. London: Methuen, 1959.
   ■ Glaser, Hermann. Die Kultur der wilhelminischen Zeit. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer, 1984.
   ■ Goldbaum, Wenzel. Theaterrecht. Berlin: Vahlen, 1914.
   ■ Gregor, Joseph. Das Theater der Reichshauptstadt. Munich: Langen, 1904.
   ■ . Das Theater in der Wiener Josefstadt. Vienna: Wiener Drucke, 1924.
   ■ . Gerhart Hauptmann, das Werk und unsere Zeit. Vienna: Diana-Verlag, 1951.
   ■ . Josef Kainz. Leipzig: Schuster und Loeffler, 1904.
   ■ . Max Reinhardt. Berlin: E. Reiss, 1910.
   ■ . Meister deutscher Schauspielkunst. Bremen: Schünemann, 1939.
   ■ Gregori, Ferdinand. Der Schauspieler. Leipzig: Teubner, 1919.
   ■ Guglia, Eugen. Friedrich Mitterwurzer. Vienna: Gerold, 1896.
   ■ Hagemann, Carl. Deutsche Bühnenküünstler um die Jahrhundertwende. Frankfurt/Main: Kramer, 1940.
   ■ Hays, Michael. The Public and Performance. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Press, 1982.
   ■ Henze, Herbert. Otto Brahm und das Deutsche Theater in Berlin. Berlin: Verein für die Geschichte Berlins, 1930.
   ■ Herald, Heinz. Max Reinhardt: Ein Versuch über das Wesen der modernen Regie. Berlin: Lehmann, 1915.
   ■ Houben, H. H. Polizei und Zensur. Berlin: Gersbach, 1926.
   ■ Hübner, Gotthard. Beiträge zur Geschichte des modernen Theaters. Leipzig: Wölfert, 1877.
   ■ Jacobsohn, Siegfried. Deutsche Bühnenkunst. Berlin: Tagewerk, 1924. Jährig-Ostertag, Susanne. "Das dramatische Werk: Seine küntslerische und kommerzielle Verwertung." Ph.D. diss., University of Cologne, 1971. Jaron, Norbert, Renate Möhrmann, and Hedwig Müller, eds. Bühnengeschichte der Reichshauptstadt im Spiegel der Kritik, 1889-1914. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1986.
   ■ Jelavich, Peter. Munich and Theatrical Modernism, 1890-1914. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993. Kahane, Arthur. Theater: Aus dem Tagebuch eines Theatermannes. Berlin: Volksverband, 1930.
   ■ Kerr, Alfred. Die Welt im Drama. 4 vols. Cologne: Kiepenheuer und Witsch, 1964.
   ■ Kiefer, Sascha. Dramatik derGründerzeit: Deutsches Drama und Theater, 1870-1890. St. Ingbert: Röhrig, 1997. Kilian, Eugen. Goethe 's "Faust" auf der Bühne. Munich: Müller, 1907. Klotz, Volker. Bürgerliches Lachtheater. Munich: DTV, 1980. Kober, Erich. Josef Kainz: Mensch unter Masken. Vienna: Neff, 1948. Köberle, Georg. Die Theater-Krisis im neuen deutschen Reiche. Stuttgart: Neff, 1872.
   ■ Koller, Ann Marie. The Theater Duke: Georg II of Saxe-Meiningen. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1984. Kutscher, Artur. Die Ausdruckskunst der Bühne. Leipzig: Oldenburg, 1910. L'Arronge, Adolph. Deutsches Theater und deutsche Schauspielkunst. Berlin: Concordia, 1896.
   ■ Legband, Paul. Das Deutsche Theater in Berlin. Munich: Müller, 1909.
   ■ Lenman, Robin. "Art, Society, and Law in Wilhelmine Germany: The Lex Heinze." Oxford Studies Review 8 (1973): 86-113.
   ■ Liljeberg, Maria. "Otto Brahm: Versuch einer kulturhistorischen Monographie." Ph.D. diss., Humboldt University of Berlin, 1980.
   ■ Lindau, Paul. Aus der Hauptstadt. Dresden: Steffens, 1887.
   ■ . Nur Erinnerungen. Stuttgart: Cotta, 1919.
   ■ Litzmann, Berthold. Das deutsche Drama in den literarischen Bewegungen der Gegenwart. Hamburg: Voss, 1894.
   ■ Löwenstein, Steven M. Deutsch-Jüdische Geschichte der Neuzeit. Vol. 3, 18711918. Munich: Beck, 1997.
   ■ Mommsen, Wolfgang. Bürgerliche Kultur und küntlerische Avantgarde: Kultur und Politik im deutschen Kaiserreich, 1870-1918. Frankfurt/Main: Propyläen, 1994.
   ■ Mosse, Werner, and Arnold Paucker, eds. Juden im wilhelminischen Deutschland, 1890-1914. Tübingen: Mohr, 1976.
   ■ Newmark, Maxim. Otto Brahm: The Man and the Critic. New York: Stechert, 1938.
   ■ Pankau, Johannes G. Sexualität und Modernität: Studien zum deutschen Drama des Fin de Siècle. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2005.
   ■ Paret, Peter, and Beth Irwin. "Art, Society, and Politics in Wilhelmine Germany." Journal of Modern History 57 (1985): 696-710.
   ■ Pfeiffer, Maximilian. Theaterelend. Bamberg: Kommissions-Verlag der Schmidt'schen Buchhandlung (K. Streicher), 1909.
   ■ Presber, Rudolf. Vom Theater um die Jahrhundertwende. Stuttgart: Greiner und Pfeiffer, 1901.
   ■ Raeck, Kurt. Das Deutsche Theater zu Berlin unter der Direktion Adolph L Ar-ronge. Berlin: Verein für die Geschichte Berlins, 1928.
   ■ Reimers, Charlotte. Die deutschen Bühnen und . . . ihre wirtschaftliche Lage. Leipzig: Duncker und Humblot, 1911.
   ■ Rhode, Carla. "Das Berliner-Theater von 1885-1899." Ph.D. diss., Free University of Berlin, 1966.
   ■ Richter-Haaser, Inge. Die Schauspielkunst Albert Bassermanns. Berlin: Colloquium, 1964.
   ■ Rickelt, Gustav. Schauspieler und Direktoren. Berlin: Langenscheidt, 1910. Robert, Eugen. Theaterabende. Munich: Müller, 1915.
   ■ Ruppel, Karl H. Grosses Berliner Theater. Velber bei Hannover: Friedrich, 1962. Sandrock, Adele. Mein Leben. Berlin: Blanvalet, 1940. Sayler, Oliver, ed. Max Reinhardt and His Theater. New York: Blom, 1968. Schanze, Helmut. Drama im bürgerlichen Realismus, 1850-1890. Frankfurt/Main: Klostermann, 1973. Schaper, Rüdiger. Moissi. Berlin: Argon, 2000.
   ■ Scherl, August. Berlin hat kein Theaterpublikum! Berlin: Scherl, 1898.
   ■ Schlaijker, Erich. "Der Einfluß des Kapitalismus auf die moderne dramatische Kunst." Die neue Zeit 12/2 (1892-1894): 650.
   ■ Schlenther, Paul. Theater im 19. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Selbstverlag für Theatergeschichte, 1930.
   ■ Schulze, Hans Adolf. Der Schauspieler Rudolf Rittner. Berlin: N.p., 1961.
   ■ Sebald, W. G. Carl Sternheim: Kritiker und Oper der Wilhelminischen Ara. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1969.
   ■ Seehaus, Günter. Frank Wedekind und das Theater, 1898-1959. Munich: Laokoon, 1964.
   ■ Seelig, Ludwig. Reichstheatergesetz. Mannheim: N.p., 1913.
   ■ Seidlin, Oskar. Der Theaterkritiker Otto Brahm. Bonn: Bouvier, 1978.
   ■ Sprengel, Peter. Gerhart Hauptmann: Epoche, Werk, Wirkung. Munich: C. H. Beck, 1984.
   ■ . Scheunenviertel-Theater: Jüdische Schauspieltruppen und jiddische Dramatik in Berlin, 1900-1918. Berlin: Fannei & Walz, 1995.
   ■ Sternheim, Carl. Vorkriegseuropa im Gleichnis meines Lebens. Amsterdam: Querido, 1936.
   ■ Styan, J. L. Max Reinhardt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
   ■ Thomas, Emil. 40 Jahre Schauspieler. 2 vols. Berlin: Duncker, 1895, 1897.
   ■ Tollini, Frederick P. The Shakespeare Productions of Max Reinhardt. Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 2004.
   ■ Trebitsch, Siegfried. Chronicle of a Life. London: Heinemann, 1953.
   ■ Turszinky, Walter. Berliner Theater. Berlin: Seeman, 1908.
   ■ Weilen, Alexander von. Hamlet auf der deutschen Bühne bis zur Gegenwart. Berlin: G. Reimer, 1908.
   ■ Whitinger, Raleigh. Johannes Schlaf and German Naturalist Drama. Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1997.
   ■ Wilms, Bernd. "Der Schwank: Dramaturgie and Theatereffekt, Deutsches Trivialtheater, 1880-1930." Ph.D. diss., Free University of Berlin, 1961. Winterstein, Eduard von. Mein Leben und meine Zeit. Berlin: Arnold, 1947.
   THE WEIMAR PERIOD, 1919-1933
   The republic formed in the aftermath of German defeat in World War I has been a subject of endless fascination for scholars of culture; among the most informed of them was John Willett, whose five titles on the subject listed below form an invaluable collection for any student likewise interested in the German theater during the ill-fated Weimar period. Several autobiographies also offer a wealth of information on those years, none more valuable than Kortner's Aller Tage Abend, Kessler's In the Twenties, or Zuckmayer's Als war's ein Stück von mir (translated in an unfortunately abridged version as A Part of Myself). Bernauer's Das Theater meines Lebens, Bois's Zu wahr, um schön zu sein, Aufricht's Erzähle, damit du dein Recht erweist, Granach's There Goes an Actor, and Thielscher's Erinnerungen eines alten Komödianten are comparable, but they do not offer the same kind of political and cultural immediacy. The Weimar Republic was also witness to that subject of seemingly interminable cathexis among students, scholars, and readers — namely, Expressionism. As noted above, Willett's volumes on this subject are extensive. David Kuhns's German Expressionist Theatre: The Actor and the Stage is a thorough examination of Expressionist performance, while Schepelmann-Rieder's book on Pirchan examines the fundamentals of Expressionist stage design. Ritchie's German Expressionist Drama is also a study of fundamentals, but Krischke's Horväth auf der Bühne is valuable for its insights into another Weimar dramatic development: the reborn Volksstück. Of the many books about Zuckmayer and his "renewal" of the Volkstück, Mews's biography is the best in English. There have also been several books of Zuckmayer criticism; Wegener's Zuckmayer Criticism: Tracing Endangered Fame is the most readable. Among the studies of directors closely identified with the Weimar years, the Hugo Fetting edition of Jessner's Schriften is impressive; Christopher Innes's Erwin Piscator's Political Theater is even more valuable, indeed more so than anything Piscator himself wrote. Fehling's Die Magie des Theaters is a kind of Festschrift for Fehling, comprised of essays edited by Siegfried Melchinger.
   ■ Aufricht, Ernst Josef. Erzähle, damit du dein Recht erweist. Munich: DTV, 1969. Barzantny, Tamara. Harry Graf Kessler und das Theater. Cologne: Böhlau, 2002. Benson, Renate. German Expressionist Drama: Ernst Toller and Georg Kaiser. New York: Grove, 1984. Bernauer, Rudolf. Das Theater meines Lebens. Berlin: Blanvalet, 1955. Bois, Curt. Zu wahr, um schön zu sein. Berlin: Henschel, 1980. Davies, Cecil. Theater for the People. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1977. Diebold, Bernahrd. Anarchie im Drama. Berlin: Keller, 1928. Eroe, Geoffrey M. 1993. "The Stage Designs of Traugott Müller in Relation to the Political Theatre of Erwin Piscator and the Weimar Republic." Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 1993. Eser, Willibald. Theo Lingen. Munich: Langen Müller, 1986. Fehling, Jürgen. Die Magie des Theaters. Velber bei Hannover: Friedrich, 1965. Felsmann, Barbara, and Karl Prümm. Kurt Gerrongefeiert und gejagt. Berlin: Hentrich, 1992.
   ■ Fuegi, John. Brecht and Company. New York: Grove Press, 2002. Funke, Christoph, and Wolfgang Jansen. Theater am Schiffbauerdamm. Berlin: Links, 1992.
   ■ Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968. Goetz, Wolfgang. Werner Krauss. Hamburg: Hoffmann und Kampe, 1954. Granach, Alexander. There Goes an Actor. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1945. Grange, William. Comedy in the Weimar Republic. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.
   ■ . Partnership in the German Theater. New York: Lang, 1991.
   ■ Haack, Käthe. In Berlin und anderswo. Munich: Herbig, 1971. Hadamowsky, Franz, ed. Caspar Nehers szenisches Werk. Vienna: Hollinek, 1972.
   ■ Hermand, Jost, and Frank Trommler. Die Kultur der Weimarer Republik. Munich: Nymphenburger, 1978.
   ■ Hollaender, Felix. Lebendiges Theater. Berlin: Fischer, 1932.
   ■ Hortmann, Wilhelm. Shakespeare on the German Stage. Vol. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
   ■ Ihering, Herbert. Emil Jannings. Heidelberg: Hüthig, 1941.
   ■ . Käthe Dorsch. Munich: Zinnen, 1944.
   ■ . Theater in Aktion. Edited by Hugo Fetting. Berlin: Henschel, 1986.
   ■ Innes, Christopher. Erwin Piscator's Political Theater. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972. Jessner, Leopold. Schriften. Edited by Hugo Fetting. Berlin: Henschel, 1979. Kessler, Harry. In the Twenties: The Diaries of Harry Kessler. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1971.
   ■ . Tagebücher, 1918-1937. Frankfurt/Main: Insel, 1982.
   ■ Kindermann, Heinz. Max Reinhardts Weltwirkung. Vienna: Böhlau, 1969.
   ■ Kortner, Fritz. Aller Tage Abend. Munich: Kindler, 1959.
   ■ Krell, Max, ed. Das deutsche Theater der Gegenwart. Munich: Rösl, 1923.
   ■ Krischke, Traugott. Horvâth auf der Bühne, 1926-1938. Vienna: Österreichischen Staatsdruckerei, 1991.
   ■ Kuhns, David F. German Expressionist Theatre: The Actor and the Stage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
   ■ Lacquer, Walter. Weimar: A Cultural History. New York: Putnam, 1974.
   ■ Maartens, Valerie von. Das grosse Curt Goetz Album. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, 1968.
   ■ Martersteig, Max. Das Theater im neuen Staat. Berlin: De Grunter, 1920. Mews, Siegfried. Carl Zuckmayer. Boston: Twayne, 1981. Overesch, Manfred, and Friedrich Wilhelm Saal. Die Weimarer Republik. Düsseldorf: Droste, 1982. Patterson, Michael. The Revolution in German Theatre, 1900-1933. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981. Paulsen, Wolfgang, ed. Die deutsche Komödie im zwanzigsten Jahrhundert. Heidelberg: Lothar Stiem, 1976. Peukert, Detlev. The Weimar Republic. Trans. by Richard Deveson. New York: Hill and Wang, 1992.
   ■ Pfefferkorn, Rudolf. César Klein. Berlin: Rembrandt, 1962.
   ■ Piscator, Erwin. Das politische Theater. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1963.
   ■ . The Political Theatre: A History, 1914-1929. Trans. by Hugh Rorison. New York: Avon, 1978. Raggam, Miriam. Walter Hasenclever. Hildesheim: Gerstenberg, 1973. Reinhardt, Gottfried. The Genius. New York: Knopf, 1979. Richardson, Horst Fuchs. "Comedy in the Works of Curt Goetz." Ph.D. diss., University of Connecticut, 1975. Ritchie, James MacPherson. German Expressionist Drama. Boston: Twayne, 1976.
   ■ Rose, Paul. Berlins grosse Theaterzeit: Schauspieler-Porträts der 20er und 30er Jahre. Berlin: Rembrandt, 1959.
   ■ Rühle, Günther. Theater für die Republik. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer, 1967.
   ■ Salten, Felix. Schauen und Spielen. 2 vols. Vienna: Wila, 1921.
   ■ Sarrazac, Jean-Pierre. Actualité du théâtre expressionniste. Louvain, Belgium: Centre d'Études Théâtrales, 1995.
   ■ Schepelmann-Rieder, Erika. Emil Pirchan und das expressionistische Bühnenbild. Vienna: Bergland, 1964.
   ■ Schönherr, Hans-Joachim. Ralph Arthur Roberts. Hildesheim: Olms, 1992.
   ■ Schürer, Ernst. Georg Kaiser. Boston: Twayne, 1971.
   ■ Smith, Amy. Hermine Körner. Berlin: Kranich, 1970.
   ■ Straub, Agnes. Im Wirbel des neuen Jahrhunderts. Heidelberg: Hüthig, 1942. Theater in der Weimarer Republik. Berlin: Kunstamt Kreuzberg, 1977.
   ■ Thielscher, Guido. Erinnerungen eines alten Komödianten. Berlin: Langenscheidt, 1938.
   ■ Tyson, Peter K. The Reception of Georg Kaiser. Bern: Peter Lang, 1984.
   ■ Völker, Klaus. Elisabeth Bergner. Berlin: Hentrich, 1990.
   ■ Wegener, Hans. Zuckmayer Criticism: Tracing Endangered Fame. Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1995.
   ■ Willett, John. Art and Politics of the Weimar Period. London: Thames and Hudson, 1978.
   ■ . Expressionism. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970.
   ■ . The Theater of Erwin Piscator. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1979.
   ■ . The Theatre of the Weimar Republic. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1988.
   ■ . The Weimar Years: A Culture Cut Short. London: Thames and Hudson, 1984.
   ■ Zuckmayer, Carl. Als wär's ein Stück von mir. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer, 1966.
   THE THIRD REICH, 1933-1945
   Only recently has the National Socialist period in German theater begun to attract a more balanced set of inquiries by scholars and critics. In the 1960s there were attempts to evaluate the level of work between 1933 and 1944, but many of them, perhaps understandably, got bogged down in ideological positioning. Among those works that still remain valuable are Brenner's Die Kunstpolitik des Nationalsozialismus and Drewniak's Das Theater im NS-Staat. Later, Wardetzky's Theaterpolitik im Faschistischen Deutschland continued in somewhat the same vein. In the last decade of the 20th century, books with a somewhat steadier view of the Third Reich and its theater culture appeared. Daiber's Schaufenster der Diktatur and Reichel's Der schöne Schein des dritten Reiches were initial steps in that direction. Editions of essays in English (Cuomo's National Socialist Cultural Policy, Gadberry's Theatre in the Third Reich, Berghaus's Fascism and Theatre, and London's Theatre under the Nazis) contributed to this trend. Among the most valuable reference works on the Nazi years to have recently appeared is Eicher's Theater im "Dritten Reich. " It supplements the many similar works about the Third Reich generally that have remained in print since the 1950s. Several important books on directors active during the Third Reich also began to come out in the 1960s. Among them were Riess's Gustaf Gründgens and Rischbieter's Gründgens: Schauspieler, Regisseur, Theaterleiter. In the 1970s several books on directors were published: Noelte's Jürgen Fehling der Regisseur; Badenhausen's collection of letters, essays, and speeches by Gründgens, titled Briefe, Aufsätze, Reden; Kühlken's Die Klassiker-Inszenierungen von Gustaf Gründgens; Holba's Erich Engel; and Engel's own Schriften über Theater und Film. A masterpiece of scholarship on directorial art appeared in 1990, however, with the publication of Dillmann's Heinz Hilpert: Leben und Werk. Such works joined an already growing collection of worthy books on German actors and designers, such as Ball's Heinz Rühmann, Funke's Hans Albers, Jannings's autobiography Theater, Filmdas Leben, und ich, Werner Krauss's autobiography Das Schauspiel meines Lebens, and Pfefferkorn's César Klein. Barbara Felsmann's KurtGerrongefeiert und gejagt is the tragic account of a brilliant actor whose career began in the Weimar period and ended in Auschwitz. Even more poignant is Ulrich Liebe's Verehrt, verfolgt, vergessen: Schauspieler als Naziopfer; it chronicles the fates of actors such as Robert Dorsay, Joachim Gottschalk, Fritz Grünbaum, Eugen Burg, Alice Dorel, Herta Felden, and many others who were driven to suicide, "shot while attempting to escape," or murdered in concentration camps. Zuckmayer's Geheimreport is a fascinating account of numerous artists such as Heinrich George, Hans Reimann, and Eugen Klopfer, who not only collaborated with the Nazis but were themselves enthusiastic National Socialist Party members. Among the best books on a designer is Willett's Caspar Neher: Brecht's Designer. Of course, Neher did no designs for Brecht in the Third Reich, but he was active throughout the Nazi years. So was Brecht, though not in Germany. Lyon's Brecht in America is among the best books on Brecht, providing a stunningly well-crafted account of Brecht's experience in exile, "changing countries more often than shoes."
   ■ Adam, Peter. The Art of the Third Reich. New York: Abrams, 1992.
   ■ Aders, Egon. Theater, wohin?Stuttgart: Muth, 1935.
   ■ Ahleff, Eberhard, ed. Das dritte Reich. Hanover: Fackelträger, 1970.
   ■ Ahrens, Gerhard, ed. Das Theater des deutschen Regisseurs Jürgen Fehling. Berlin: Quadriga, 1987.
   ■ Albert, Claudia, ed. Deutsche Klassiker im Nationalsozialismus. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1994.
   ■ Albrecht, Gerd. Nationalsozialistische Filmpolitik. Stuttgart: Emke, 1969. Amrein, Ursula. "Los von Berlin!": Die Literatur- und Theaterpolitik der Schweiz und das "Dritte Reich. "Zurich: Chronos, 2004.
   ■ Arp, J. "Studien zu Problemen der nierderdeutsche Volkskomödie." Ph.D. diss., University of Kiel, 1955.
   ■ Aschheim, Steven E. Culture and Catastrophe: New York: New York University Press, 1996.
   ■ Asper, Helmut G., ed. Im Rampenlicht der "dunklen Jahre. "Berlin: Sigma, 1989.
   ■ August, Wolf-Eberhard. "Die Stellung der Schauspieler im Dritten Reich." Ph.D. diss., University of Cologne, 1973.
   ■ Ayass, Wolfgang. "Asoziale"imNS. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1995.
   ■ Ball, Gregor. Heinz Rühmann. Munich: Heyne Filmbibliothek, 1981.
   ■ Baumgarten, Michael. "Gerhart Hauptmann—Inszenierungen am Berliner Rose Theater, 1933-1944." Ph.D. diss., Free University of Berlin, 1991.
   ■ Benz, Wolfgang, et al. Enzyklopädie des Nationalsozialismus. Stuttgart: KlettCotta, 1997.
   ■ Berghaus, Günter, ed. Fascism and Theatre. Oxford: Berghahn, 1996. Best, Walter. Völkische Dramaturgie. Würzburg: Triltsch, 1940. Beyer, Friedemann. Die UFA-Stars im Dritten Reich. Munich: Heyne, 1991. Biedrzynski, Richard. Schauspieler, Regisseure, Intendanten. Heidelberg: Hüthig, 1944.
   ■ Blinn, Hansjürgen. Der deutsche Shakespeare. Berlin: E. Schmidt, 1993. Braun, Hanns. Vor der Kulissen. Munich: Heimeran, 1938. Brenner, Hildegarde. Die Kunstpolitikdes Nationalsozialismus. Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1963.
   ■ Bumm, Peter. Drama und Theater der konservativen Revolution. Munich: Verlag UNI-Druck, 1971.
   ■ Burleigh, Michael, ed. Confronting the Nazi Past. New York: St. Martin's, 1996.
   ■ Buschbeck, Erhard. Raoul Aslan und das Burgtheater. Vienna: Müller, 1946. Cadigan, Rufus J. "Richard Billinger, Hans Johst, and Eberhard Möller." Ph.D. diss., University of Kansas, 1979. Cerha, Ursula. EwaldBalser. Vienna: Böhlau, 2004.
   ■ Claussen, Horst, and Norbert Oellers, eds. Beschädigtes Erbe. Bonn: Bouvier, 1984.
   ■ Crew, David F. Nazism and German .Society. London: Routledge, 1994. Cuomo, Glenn, ed. National Socialist Cultural Policy. New York: St. Martin's, 1995.
   ■ Daiber, Hans. .Schaufenster der Diktatur. Stuttgart: Neske, 1995. Davidson, Mortimer G. Kunst in Deutschland, 1933-1945. Tübingen: Grabert, 1988.
   ■ Deutsches Bühnen-Jahrbuch. Genossenschaft deutscher Bühnenangehöriger, 1933-1944.
   ■ Deutsch-Schreiner, Evelyn. "Der 'vierfach männliche Blick' auf die Frau." Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik 24 (1994): 91-105.
   ■ Dillmann, Michael. Heinz Hilpert: Leben und Werk. Berlin: Akademie der Künste, 1990.
   ■ Domarus, Max, ed. Adolf Hitler: Reden und Proklamationen, 1932-1945. Munich: Süddeutscher Verlag, 1965.
   ■ Drewniak, Boguslaw. Das Theater im NS-Staat. Düsseldorf: Droste, 1983.
   ■ Dreyer, Ernst Adolf, ed. Deutsche Kultur im neuen Reich. Berlin: Schlieffen, 1934.
   ■ Dürhammer, Illja, and Pia Janke. Die "österreichische"nationalsozialistische Ästhetik. Vienna: Böhlau, 2003.
   ■ Dussel, Konrad. Ein neues, ein Heroisches Theater?Bonn: Bouvier, 1988.
   ■ . "Theatergeschichte der NS-Zeit unter sozialgeschichtlichem Aspekt." Neue politische Literatur 32 (1987): 233—45. Eicher, Thomas. "Theater im 'Dritten Reich.'" Ph.D. diss., Free University of Berlin, 1992.
   ■ Eicher, Thomas, Barbara Panse, and Henning Rischbieter. Theater im "Dritten Reich." Seelze-Veber: Kallmeyer, 2000.
   ■ Elsner, Richard. Die deutsche Nationalbühne. Berlin: Heyer, 1934.
   ■ Emmel, Felix. Theater aus deutschem Wesen. Berlin: Stilke, 1937.
   ■ Engel, Erich. Schriften über Theater und Film. Berlin: Henschel, 1971.
   ■ Falkenberg, Hans-Geert. Heinz Hilpert: Das Ende einer Epoche. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1968.
   ■ Fest, Joachim C. Das Gesicht des dritten Reiches. Munich: Piper, 1963.
   ■ Frauenfeld, Eduard. Der Weg zur Bühne. Berlin: Limpert, 1941.
   ■ Frei, Norbert. "Wie modern war der NS?" Geschichte und Gesellschaft 19 (1993): 367-387.
   ■ Freydank, Ruth. Theater in Berlin. East Berlin: Argon, 1988.
   ■ Fricke, Kurt. Spiel am Abgrund: Heinrich George. Halle: Mitteldeutscher Verlag, 2000.
   ■ Friedländer, Saul. Reflections of Nazism. New York: Harper & Row, 1984. Fritsch, Theodor, ed. Handbuch der Judenfrage. Leipzig: Hammer, 1944. Funke, Christoph. Hans Albers. Berlin: Henschel, 1965. Funke, Christoph, and Dieter Kranz. Theaterstadt Berlin. Berlin: Henschel, 1978. Gadberry, Glen, ed. Theatre in the Third Reich. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1995. Genossenschaft deutscher Bühnenangehöriger. Deutsches Bühnen-Jahrbuch. Berlin: Druck- und Kommissionverlag, 1933-1944. Gilman, Sander L. Nationalsozialistische Literaturtheorie. Frankfurt/Main: Athenäum, 1971.
   ■ Girshausen, Theo, and Henry Thorau, eds. Theater als Ort der Geschichte: Festschrift für Henning Rischbieter. Velber bei Hannover: Friedrich, 1998.
   ■ Goebbels, Joseph. Der Kampf um Berlin. Berlin: Eher, 1932.
   ■ . "Rede des Propagandaministers vor den Theaterleitern, 8 May 1933." Das Deutsche Drama in Geschichte und Gegenwart 5.
   ■ . Tagebücher. 4 vols. Edited by Elke Fröhlich. Munich: Saur, 1987.
   ■ Goertz, Heinrich. Gustaf Gründgens. Reinbeck: Rowohlt, 1982.
   ■ Golsan, Richard J., ed. Fascism, Aesthetics, and Culture. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1992.
   ■ Görtz, Franz Josef, and Hans Sarkowicz. Heinz Rühmann: Der Schauspieler und sein Jahrhundert. Munich: Beck, 2001.
   ■ Grange, William. Hitler Laughing: Comedy in the Third Reich. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2005.
   ■ Grimm, Reinhold, and Jost Hermand, eds. Faschismus und Avantgarde. Königstein: Athenäum, 1980.
   ■ , eds. Geschichte im Gegenwartsdrama. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1976.
   ■ Grosshans, Henry. Hitler and the Artists. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1983.
   ■ Grunberger, Richard. A Social History of the Third Reich. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1971.
   ■ Gründgens, Gustaf. Briefe, Aufsätze, Reden. Edited by Rolf Badenhausen and Peter Gründgens-Gorski. Munich: DTV, 1970.
   ■ Gutzeit, Jutta. "Staatliches Schauspielhaus und Thalia-Theater in Hamburg, 1939-1945." Master's thesis, University of Hamburg, 1989.
   ■ Habicht, Werner. "Shakespeare in the Third Reich." In Anglistentag, edited by Manfred Pfister, 194-204. Giessen: Hoffmann, 1985.
   ■ Haider-Pregler, Hilde. "Das Dritte Reich und das Theater." Maske und Kothurn 17 (1971): 203-214.
   ■ Hammerschmidt, Ulrich. "Theaterkritik im dritten Reich." Master's thesis, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 1989.
   ■ Hansen, John H. "Nazi Aethetics." Psychohistory Review 9, no. 4 (1981): 251-281.
   ■ Haxthausen, Charles, ed. Berlin: Culture and Metropolis. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990.
   ■ Herf, Jeffrey. Reactionary Modernism. New York: Cambridge, 1984.
   ■ Herterich, Fritz. Theater und Volkswirtschaft. Munich: Duncker und Humblot, 1937.
   ■ Hewitt, Andrew. Fascist Modernism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993.
   ■ Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. Munich: Hanser, 1939. Holba, Herbert. Erich Engel. Vienna: Aktion, 1977.
   ■ Hortmann, Wilhelm. Shakespeare on the German Stage. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
   ■ Hostetter, Elisabeth Schulz. The Berlin State Theater under the Nazi Regime. Lewiston, NY: Mellen, 2004.
   ■ Huch, Rudolf. William Shakespeare: Eine Studie. Hamburg: Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, 1941.
   ■ Ihering, Herbert. Berliner Dramaturgie. Berlin: Aufbau, 1948.
   ■ . Regie. Berlin: Hugo, 1943.
   ■ Jannings, Emil. Theater, Filmdas Leben, und ich. Berchtesgaden: Zimmer und Herzog, 1951.
   ■ Kadner, Siegfried. Rasse und Humor. Munich: Lehmanns, 1936.
   ■ Kammer, Hilde, et al. Lexikon Nationalsozialismus. Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1999.
   ■ Kemmler, Richard S. "The National Socialist Ideology in Drama." Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1973.
   ■ Ketelsen, Uwe-Karsten. Völkisch-nationale und nationalsozialistische Literatur in Deutschland, 1890-1945. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1976.
   ■ . Von heroischem Sein und völkischem Tod. Bonn: Bouvier, 1970.
   ■ Kirk, Tim. The Longman Companion to Nazi Germany. New York: Longman, 1995.
   ■ Kliesch, Hans-Joachim. "Die Film- und Theaterkritik im NS-Staat." Ph.D. diss., Humboldt University of Berlin, 1957. Kowa, Viktor de. Als ich noch Prinz war von Arkadien. Nuremberg: Glock und Lutz, 1955.
   ■ Kracauer, Siegfried. "The Mass Ornament." New German Critique 5:67-76.
   ■ Krauss, Werner. Das Schauspiel meines Lebens. Edited by Hans Weigel. Stuttgart: Govert, 1958.
   ■ Kresse, Dodo, and Michael Horvath. Nur ein Komödiant? Hans Moser in den Jahren 1938-1945. Vienna: Österreichische Staatsdrückerei, 1994.
   ■ Kühlken, Edda. Die Klassiker-Inszenierungen von Gustaf Gründgens. Meisenheim: Hain, 1972.
   ■ Kuschnia, Michael, ed. 100 Jahre Deutsches Theater in Berlin, 1883-1983. Berlin: Henschel, 1983.
   ■ Lehmann-Haupt, Helmut. Art under a Dictatorship. New York: Oxford, 1954.
   ■ Lennartz, Franz. Die Dichter unserer Zeit. Stuttgart: Kröner, 1941.
   ■ Liebe, Ulrich. Verehrt, verfolgt, vergessen: Schauspieler als Naziopfer. Weinheim: Beltz Quadriga, 1992.
   ■ Loewy, Ernst. Literatur unterm Hakenkreuz. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer-Bücherei, 1969.
   ■ London, John, ed. Theatre under the Nazis. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000.
   ■ Luft, Friedrich. Gustaf Gründgens. Berlin: Rembrandt, 1958. Lukacs, John. The Hitler of History. New York: Knopf, 1997. Lüth, Erich. Hamburger Theater, 1933-1945. Hamburg: Buekschmidt, 1962. Lyon, James K. Brecht in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980.
   ■ May, Ursula. "Das Mannheimer Nationaltheater, 1933-1945." Master's thesis, Free University of Berlin, 1986. Meier, Monika, et al. Theater: Wissenschaft und Faschismus. Berlin: Roessler, 1981.
   ■ Michaelis, Cassie, et al. Die braune Kultur. Zurich: Europaverlag, 1934. Milfull, John, ed. The Attractions of Fascism. New York: Berg, 1990. Minetti, Bernhard. Erinnerungen eines Schauspielers. Edited by Günther Rühle. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1985. Mohr, Albert. Das Frankfurter Schauspiel, 1929-1944. Frankfurt/Main: Kramer, 1974.
   ■ Mosse, George L. Nazi Culture. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1966. Mühr, Alfred. Mephisto ohne Maske: Gustaf Gründgens. Munich: Langen Müller, 1981.
   ■ Naso, Eckehart. Ich liebe das Leben. Hamburg: Krüger, 1953. Neocleous, Mark. Fascism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. Noelte, Rudolf, ed. Jürgen Fehling der Regisseur. Berlin: Akademie der Künste, 1978.
   ■ Panse, Barbara. "Diese Künstler sind wie Kinder." Theater Heute 30, no. 9 (September 1989): 4-5. Pilger, Else. "George Bernard Shaw in Deutschland." Ph.D. diss., University of Münster, 1940.
   ■ Poensgen, Wolfgang. Der deutsche Bühnen-Spielplan im Weltkriege. Berlin: Gesellschaft für Theatergeschichte, 1934.
   ■ Prinz, Michael, and Rainer Zitelmann. Nationalsozialismus und Modernisierung. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1991.
   ■ Prinzer, Helmut. Chronik des deutschen Films, 1895-1994. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1995.
   ■ Quaresima, Leonardo. "Der Film im dritten Reich: Moderne, Amerikanismus, Unterhaltungsfilm." montage/av 3, no. 2 (1994): 5-22. Rabenalt, Arthur M. Über die Schauspielkunst im Film. Düsseldorf: Merkur, 1945.
   ■ Reeve, William C. Kleist on Stage, 1804-1987. Montreal: McGill University Press, 1993.
   ■ Reichel, Peter. Der schöne Schein des dritten Reiches. Munich: Carl Hanser, 1992.
   ■ Reichert, Franz. Durch meine Brille: Theater in bewegter Zeit. Vienna: Österreichischer Bundesverlag, 1986.
   ■ Riess, Curt. Gustaf Gründgens. Hamburg: Hofmann und Campe, 1965.
   ■ . Zürich Schauspielhaus, Sein oder Nichtsein: Der Roman eines Theaters. Zurich: Sanssouci-Verlag, 1969.
   ■ Ritchie, James MacPherson. German Literature under National Socialism. To-towa, NJ: Barnes and Noble, 1983.
   ■ Rosenberg, Alfred. Der Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts. Munich: Hoheneichen, 1939.
   ■ Rothe, Hans. Der Kampf um Shakespeare. Leipzig: List, 1936. Rühle, Gerd. Das dritte Reich. Berlin: Hummel, 1934.
   ■ Rühle, Günther. Zeit und Theater: Diktatur und Exil. Vol. 3. Berlin: Propyläen, 1973.
   ■ Rühle, Jürgen. Das gefesselte Theater. Cologne: Kiepenhauer und Witsch, 1957.
   ■ Ruppel, Karl H. Berliner Schauspiel: Dramaturgische Betrachtungen, 1936-1942. Berlin: Neff, 1943.
   ■ Schäfer, Hans-Dieter. Das gespaltene Bewusstsein. Munich: Hanser, 1982.
   ■ Schlösser, Rainer. Das Volk und seine Bühne. Berlin: Langen/Müller, 1935.
   ■ . Politik und Drama. Berlin: Zeitgeschichte, 1933.
   ■ Schnell, Ralf, ed. Kunst und Kultur im deutschen Faschismus. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1978.
   ■ Schoenbaum, David. Hitler's Social Revolution. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967.
   ■ Schulte-Sasse, Linda. "National Socialism's Aestheticization of Genius." Germanic Review 66 (1991): 4-15.
   ■ Seelig, Ludwig. Geschäftstheater oder Kulturtheater? Berlin: Reichsverband Deutscher Bühnenangehöriger, 1935.
   ■ Seeslen, Georg. Tanz den Adolf Hitler: Faschismus in der populären Kultur. Berlin: Bittermann, 1994.
   ■ Silberman, Marc. "The Ideology of Re-Presenting the Classics in the Third Reich." German Quarterly57, no. 4 (1984): 590-602.
   ■ Snyder, Louis L. Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. New York: Paragon, 1989.
   ■ Stachura, Peter D. "Who Were the Nazis?" European Studies Review 11 (1981): 293-324.
   ■ Stackelberg, Roderick. Hitler's Germany. New York: Routledge, 1999.
   ■ Stang, Walter. Grundlagen nationalsozialistischer Kulturpflege. Berlin: Junker und Dünnhaupt, 1935.
   ■ Staudinger, Friedrich. "Die berufsständische Idee des Bühnenkünstlers in ihrere Entwicklung." Ph.D. diss., University of Heidelberg, 1935.
   ■ Steinweis, Alan. Art, Ideology, and Economics in Nazi Germany. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
   ■ Stern, Carola. Auf das Wassern des Lebens: Gustaf Gründgens und Marianne Hoppe. Cologne: Kipenheuer und Witsch, 2005.
   ■ Stern, Fritz. The Politics of Cultural Despair. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961.
   ■ Stollmann, Rainer. Asthetisierung der Politik. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1978.
   ■ . "Fascist Politics as a Total Work of Art." New German Critique 14 (1978): 41-60.
   ■ Taylor, Ronald. Literature and Society in Germany, 1918-1945. Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble, 1980. Thompson, Dorothy. "Culture under the Nazis." Foreign Affairs 14 (1935-1936): 407-423.
   ■ Totten-Naylor, Lyra. "The Malicious Theater: National Socialist Jewish Policy and the Theater." Master's thesis, Miami University (Ohio), 2001.
   ■ Walach, Dagmar. Gustaf Gründgens: Eine Karriere. Berlin: Henschel, 1999.
   ■ Wallner, Regina. "Erfolgreiche Komödien im Nationalsozialismus." Master's thesis, Free University of Berlin, 1991.
   ■ Wanderscheck, Hermann. Deutsche Dramatik der Gegenwart. Berlin: Bong, 1938.
   ■ Wardetzky, Jutta. Theaterpolitik im Faschistischen Deutschland. Berlin: Hen-schel, 1983.
   ■ Westecker, Wilhelm. Kultur im Dienst der Nation. Hamburg: Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt, 1936.
   ■ Witte, Karsten. Lachende Erben, Toller Tag: Filmkomödie im dritten Reich. Berlin: Vorwerk 8, 1995. Wulf, Joseph. Theater und Film im Dritten Reich. Gutersloh: Mohn, 1964. Zentner, Christina, and Friedemann Bedürftig, eds. Das grosse Lexikon des Dritten Reiches. Munich: Südwest, 1985. Zuckmayer, Carl. Geheimreport. Göttingen: Wallstein, 2002.
   THE COLD WAR PERIOD, 1945-1989
   The postwar period in German theater bore the stamp of Brecht more than any other theater artist. Dozens of books on him and his work appeared with regularity, perhaps the most important of which (for English-speaking readers) was Willett's edition Brecht on Theatre. The "Brecht wave" peaked sometime in the mid-1980s and has since diminished considerably. Rouse's book on Brecht's influence in the West German theater is a good summation. Concomitant with the Brecht books were studies on East German theater practice, such as Huettich's Theatre in the Planned Society or Buhss's DDR-Theater des Umbruchs.
   Several books attempted to find the direction in which West Germany was going in the 1960s and 1970s, but few succeeded effectively. Only when it became apparent that Peter Stein and his colleagues at the Schaubühne am Halleschen Ufer in Berlin were well on their way toward something unique, as Iden makes clear in his Die Schaubühne am Halleschen Ufer, 1970-1979, did the course of West German theater become more readily apparent. Müller and Schitthelm confirmed the fact in a much later publication, 40 Jahre Schaubühne Berlin.
   On what course had the West German theater embarked? Patterson's books on Stein, Erken's on Hansgünther Heyme, and Koberg's on Claus
   Peymann seemed to indicate that its guiding star was the director. As Sebald notes in his edition A Radical Stage: Theatre in Germany in the 1970s and 1980s, West German directors had transformed the entire canon of German drama into pretexts for their own artistic endeavors. No longer did directors try to stage plays by Lessing, Schiller, Wedekind, or anybody else; they instead often used parts of plays by a playwright, or sometimes by various playwrights, to construct testaments to their own power and influence with governments who funded their enterprises. Such directorial appropriation resembled the transformations Wagner and Saxe-Meiningen had effected almost exactly 100 years earlier, as Carlson describes in his German Stage of the 19th Century. Both men stopped the inherited traditions of virtuoso acting and reliance on a prompter dead in their tracks. Stein, Peymann, Heyme, Bondy, and others had done something analogous, as Becker implies in Das Jahrhundert des Theaters.
   ■ Ahrends, Günter. Andrea Breth: Theaterkunst als kreative Interpretation. Frankfurt/Main: Lang, 1990. Amstutz, Hans, and Ursula Käser-Leisibach, eds. Schweizertheater: Drama und Bühne der Deutschschweiz bis Frisch und Dürrenmatt, 1930-1950. Zurich: Chronos, 2000. Bartram, Graham, and Anthony Waine, eds. Brecht in Perspective. London: Longman, 1982.
   ■ Becker, Peter von, ed. Das Jahrhundert des Theaters. Cologne: DuMont, 2002.
   ■ Braun, Hanns. The Theatre in Germany. Munich: Bruckmann, 1956.
   ■ Brecht, Bertolt. Arbeitsjournal. Vol. 2, 1942-1955. Edited by Werner Hecht. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1973. Buhss, Werner, and Harald Müller. DDR-Theater des Umbruchs. Frankfurt/ Main: Eichborn, 1990. Calandra, Denis. New German Dramatists. New York: Grove, 1983. Clemens, Roman, and Siegfried Melchinger, eds. Theatre on the German-Speaking Stage. Munich: Goethe Institut, 1971. Dace, Wallace. National Theaters in the Larger German and Austrian Cities. New York: Rosen, 1980. Daiber, Hans. Theater: Eine Bilanz. Munich: Langen-Müller, 1965. Domdey, Horst. Produktivkraft Tod: Das Drama Heiner Müllers. Cologne: Böhlau, 1998.
   ■ Eckert, Nora. Das Bühnenbild im 20. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Henschel, 1998. Einem, Gottfried von, and Siegfried Melchinger, eds. Caspar Neher. Velber bei Hannover: Friedrich, 1966.
   ■ Erken, Günther. Hansgünther Heyme. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer, 1989. Esslin, Martin. Brecht: A Choice of Evils. London: Methuen, 1984. Ewen, Frederic. Bertolt Brecht: His Life, His Art, and His Times. New York: Citadel, 1967.
   ■ Fischer, Matthias-Johannes. Brechts Theatertheorie. New York: P. Lang, 1989. Frisch, Max. Tagebuch, 1946-1949. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1950. Funke, Christoph, ed. Theater-Bilanz, 1945-1969 der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Berlin: Henschel, 1971. Greisenegger, Wolfgang, ed. Lois Egg: Bühnenentwürfe, Skizzen, Aquarelle, 1930-1985. Vienna: Jugend und Volk, 1985. Grosse, Helmuth. Théâtre allemand contemporain. Geneva: Musée Rath, 1962. Guntner, J. Lawrence, and Andrew McLean, eds. Redefining Shakespeare . . . in the German Democratic Republic. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1998.
   ■ Haan, Christa. "Werner Krauss und das Burgtheater." Ph.D. diss., University of Vienna, 1970.
   ■ Herrmann, Karl-Ernst, ed. Schaubühne am Halleschen Ufer, am Lehiner Platz, 1962-1987. Frankfurt/Main: Propyläen, 1987. Herzmann, Herbert. Tradition und Subversion: Das Volksstück und das epische Theater. Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 1997. Hoffmann-Allenspach, Tobias. Theaterkritik in der deutschsprachigen Schweiz seit 1945. Zurich: Chronos, 1998. Huettich, H. G. Theatre in the Planned Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978. Iden, Peter. Die Schaubühne am Halleschen Ufer, 1970-1979. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer, 1982.
   ■ Käser-Leisibach, Ursula. Schweizertheater: Drama und Bühne der Deutschschweiz bis Frisch und Dürrenmatt, 1930-1950. Zurich: Chronos, 2000.
   ■ Knuth, Gustav. Mit einem Lächeln im Knopfloch. Hamburg: Glöss, 1974. Kreuzer, Helmut, and Karl W. Schmidt, eds. Dramaturgie in der DDR, 1945-1990. Heidelberg: Winter, 1998. Lederer, Herbert. Handbook of East German Drama, 1945-1985. New York: P. Lang, 1991.
   ■ Lennartz, Knut. Vom Aufbruch zur Wende: Theater in der DDR. Seelze: Friedrich, 1992.
   ■ Luft, Friedrich. Stimme der Kritik: Berliner Theater seit 1945. Velber: Friedrich, 1965.
   ■ Lyon, James K., and Hans-Peter Breuer, eds. Brecht Unbound. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1995.
   ■ Mainusch, Herbert, and Achim Benning, eds. Regie undIntepretation. Munich: Fink, 1985.
   ■ Melchinger, Siegfried. Theater der Gegenwart. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer, 1956.
   ■ Melchinger, Siegfried, and Rosemarie Clausen. Schauspieler: 36 Porträts. Frankfurt/Main: Gutenberg, 1966.
   ■ Mertz, Peter. Das gerettete Theater: Die deutsche Bühne im Wiederaufbau. Weinheim: Quadriga, 1990.
   ■ Mittenzwei, Werner, ed. Theater in der Zeitenwende . . . in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. 2 vols. Berlin: Henschel, 1972.
   ■ Müller, Harald, and Jürgen Schitthelm, eds. 40 Jahre Schaubühne Berlin. Berlin: Theater der Zeit, 2002.
   ■ Neef, Sigrid. Das Theater der Ruth Berghaus. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer, 1989.
   ■ Patterson, Michael. German Theatre Today. London: Pitman, 1976.
   ■ . Peter Stein: Germany's Leading Theatre Director. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
   ■ Pritchard, Ilka Maria. "Des Volkes Stimme ist auch eine Stimme": Zur Sprichwörtlichkeit in Carl Zuckmayers Dramen. Burlington: University of Vermont Press, 2001.
   ■ Reichhardt, Hans, ed. 10 Jahre Theater in Berlin: Premieren, 1970-1980. Berlin: Spritzing, 1980.
   ■ , ed. 25 Jahre Theater in Berlin: Theaterpremieren, 1945-1970. Berlin: Spritzing, 1972.
   ■ Riess, Curt. Theaterdämmerung, oder das Klo auf der Bühne. Hamburg: Hoffmann und Kampe, 1970.
   ■ Rischbieter, Henning, ed. German Theatre Today. Velber: Friedrich, 1967.
   ■ Rouse, John. Brecht and the West German Theatre. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1989.
   ■ Rühle, Günther. Anarchie in der Regie? 2 vols. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1980,1982.
   ■ Schirmer, Lothar. Aus Trümmern erstanden: Theater in Deutschland nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Berlin: Gesellschaft für Theatergeschichte, 1991. Schmidt, Dietmar, ed. Regie: Luc Bondy. Berlin: Alexander, 1991. Schneider, Rolf. Theater in einem besiegten Land: Dramaturgie der deutschen Nachkriegszeit 1945-1949. Frankfurt/Main: Ullstein, 1989. Schubbe, Elmar. Dokumente zur Kunst-, Literatur-, und Kulturpolitik der S.E.D. Stuttgart: Seewald, 1972. Schulmeister, Karl-Heinz. Auf dem Weg zu einer neuen Kultur. Berlin: Dietz, 1977.
   ■ Schulze-Reimpell, Werner. Development and Structure of the Theatre in the Federal Republic of Germany. Cologne: Deutscher Bühnenverein, 1975.
   ■ Sebald, W. G., ed. A Radical Stage: Theatre in Germany in the 1970s and 1980s. New York: Berg, 1988.
   ■ Seydel, Renate, ed. Verweile doch . . . Erinnerungen von Schauspielern des Deutschen Theaters. Berlin: Henschel, 1984.
   ■ Shaw, Leroy, ed. The German Theatre Today. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1963.
   ■ Silberman, Marc. Heiner Müller. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1980.
   ■ Smith, Yvette Koth. "Censorship Mechanisms in the Theatre of the German Democratic Republic, 1971-1989." Master's thesis, San Jose State University, 1999.
   ■ Stephan, Alexander. "Johannes R. Becher and the Cultural Development of the GDR." New German Critique 1, no. 2 (1974): 72-89.
   ■ Szondi, Peter. Theorie des modernen Dramas. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1956.
   ■ Thomson, Peter, and Glendyr Sacks. The Cambridge Companion to Brecht. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
   ■ Vergleichende Theater-Statistik, 1949-1974. Cologne: Deutscher Bühnenverein, 1977.
   ■ Walther, Ingeborg C. The Theater of Franz Xaver Kroetz. New York: P. Lang, 1990.
   ■ White, John J. Bertolt Brecht's Dramatic Theory. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2004.
   ■ Willett, John Caspar Neher: Brecht's Designer. London: Methuen, 1986.
   The political reunification of Germany meant, among other things, an attempted reconciliation of two German theater cultures, one in the Federal Republic and the other in the Democratic Republic. Several books in the 1990s attempted to decipher what reunification would mean or had already begun to signify, though few of them offered anything beyond belabored theoretical musings. The sensational publicity that surrounded the premieres of some plays most observers accepted as the byproduct of a theater culture that had become dominated by directorial mandate. Robin Detje's book on Frank Castorf is a good example of such acceptance. Balitzki's study of Castorf attempts to explore director Castorf's conviction that the postunification period is both decadent and "neo-fascist" — and why potato salad seems to make an appearance in so many Castorf productions. The influence of Peymann has resulted in the numerous books on Thomas Bernhard. Among them, Dowden's Understanding Thomas Bernhard is probably the most helpful, while Honegger's is the most extensive. Fiddler's introduction to Jelinek is likewise helpful, especially as more books on the Nobel Prize-winning playwright begin to appear. Stock's brief bibliography on Jelinek will doubtless provide additional assistance to readers interested in her.
   Other studies have undertaken to reconceptualize the German theater in terms of postmodernist hypotheses and/or methodologies; a good example is Barnett's book on Heiner Müller, an attempt to understand how—or if—Müller's plays can ever be effectively staged. In some ways, the books on Müller by Fuhrmann and by Schulte and Mayer ponder the same improbabilities. Keim, on the other hand, sees Müller's later work as a "metatheatrical play" on the set pieces of Western cultural tradition, laying bare the artistic and social structures of those traditions.
   ■ Balitzki, Jürgen. Castorf, der Eisenhändler. Berlin: Links, 1995.
   ■ Bargna, Katya. "Der Weg ist nicht zu Ende Wenn das Ziel explodiert: Frank Castorf and the Survival of Political Theatre in the Postmodern Age." Ph.D. diss., University of Sheffield, 2000.
   ■ Barnett, David. Literature versus Theatre: Textual Problems and Theatrical Realization in the Later Plays of Heiner Müller. New York: P. Lang, 1998.
   ■ Bühler-Dietrich, Annette. Auf dem Weg zum Theater: Else Lasker-Schüler, Marieluise Fleisser, NellySachs, Gerlind Reinshagen, Elfriede Jelinek. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2003.
   ■ Detje, Robin. Castorf: Provokation aus Prinzip. Berlin: Henschel, 2002.
   ■ Domdey, Horst. Produktivkraft Tod: Das Drama Heiner Müllers. Cologne: Böhlau, 1998.
   ■ Dowden, Stephen D. Understanding Thomas Bernhard. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1991.
   ■ Eke, Norbert Otto. Heiner Müller. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1999.
   ■ Fiddler, Allyson. Rewriting Reality: An Introduction to Elfriede Jelinek. Providence, RI: Berg, 1994.
   ■ Fischer-Lichte, Erika, et al., eds. Ritualität und Grenze. Tübingen: Francke, 2003.
   ■ Fischer-Lichte, Erika, and Harald Xander, eds. Welttheater-NationaltheaterLokaltheater? Tübingen: Francke, 1993
   ■ Fuhrmann, Helmut. Warten auf "Geschichte": Der Dramatiker Heiner Müller. Würzburg: Königshausen und Neumann, 1997.
   ■ Gleichauf, Ingeborg. Was für ein Schauspiel! Deutschsprachige Dramatikerinnen des 20. Jahrhunderts. Berlin: AvivA, 2003.
   ■ Haas, Birgit. Modern German Political Drama, 1980-2000. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2003.
   ■ . Theater der Wende, Wendetheater. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2004.
   ■ Höller, Hans. Thomas Bernhard. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1993.
   ■ Honegger, Gitta. Thomas Bernhard. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001.
   ■ Irmer, Thomas, et al. Zehn Jahre Volksbühne: Intendanz Frank Castorf. Berlin: Theater der Zeit, 2003.
   ■ Jaeger, Dagmar. "Theater im Medienzeitalter: Das postdramatische Theater von Elfriede Jelinek und Heiner Müller." Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts, 2001.
   ■ Janke, Pia. Die Nestbeschmützerin: Jelinek und Österreich. Salzburg: Jung und Jung, 2002.
   ■ Janz, Marlies. Elfriede Jelinek. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1995. Kalb, Jonathan. The Theater of Heiner Müller. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
   ■ Keim, Katharina, et al., eds. Theater ohne Grenzen. München: Utz, 2003. Klug, Christian. Thomas Bernhards Theaterstücke. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1991. Koberg, Roland. Claus Peymann: Aller Tage Abenteuer. Berlin: Henschel, 1999. Konzett, Matthias. A Companion to the Works of Thomas Bernhard. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2002.
   ■ . The Rhetoric on National Dissent in Thomas Bernhard, Peter Handke, and Elfriede Jelinek. Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2000. Lehmann, Hans-Thies. Postdramatisches Theater. Frankfurt/Main: Verlag der Autoren, 1999.
   ■ Lennartz, Knut. Theater, Künstler, und die Politik. Berlin: Henschel, 1996. Meyer-Dinkgräfe, Daniel. Boulevard Comedy Theatre in Germany. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 2005. Mittermayer, Manfred. Thomas Bernhard. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1995. Rigby, Catherine E. Transgressions of the Feminine. Heidelberg: Winter, 1996. Rupprecht, Martin. Bühnenbilder und Kostüme. Edited by Lothar Schirmer. Berlin: Henschel, 2005.
   ■ Schilling, Klaus von. Die Gegenwart der Vergangenheit auf dem Theater. Tübingen: Narr, 2001. Schulte, Christian, and Brigitte Maria Mayer. Der Text ist der Coyote: Heiner Müller Bestandsaufnahme. Frankfiurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 2004. Schutt, Hans-Dieter, et al. Castorfs Volksbühne. Berlin: Schwarzkopf und Schwarzkopf, 1999. Stock, Karl F., et al., eds. Jelinek Bibliographien. Graz: Stock, 2004.

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